Endangered vine varieties and sustainable agriculture
The main objective of the project “SOS for endangered traditional vine varieties” is to promote and enable the long-term protection of vineyards, especially those in “Natura 2000”, and also to improve the conservation status of local vine varieties; to analyze local species through joint scientific work and to create mechanisms for protection and conservation of species in general that can be used for other species and regions.
One of the main activities of the project “SOS for endangered traditional vine varieties” is to support the long-term conservation of local vine varieties, which will contribute to the spread of traditional vine populations in the cross-border region by giving them unique identification and image, not only nationally but also globally.
Due to global warming, the chances of different grape varieties disappearing are high. Climate change also affects the drought in the various wine-growing areas.
This is also one of the main challenges that the wine industry is facing. They range from short-term impacts on wine quality and style, to long-term issues such as varietal suitability and economic sustainability of traditional viticulture.
For the reasons mentioned above, we must continue to maintain traditional vine varieties that are climate-tolerant and at risk of drought.
There are alternative irrigation solutions such as adaptive systems, use of drought-resistant plants, soil selection.
According to the Japanese farmer and philosopher Masanobu Fukuoka, natural agriculture bases its nature on agriculture, completely free from any human intervention and mediation. He "seeks" to repair the damage caused by human knowledge and the actions of nature and to "restore humanity without divinity." Fukuoka is the author of “The One-Straw Revolution”, which discusses the issues of subsistence farming. His theory is divided into four basic principles.
The first principle is subject to the refusal of cultivation - plowing or turning the soil. For centuries, farmers have been convinced that tillage is necessary for growing different crops. The "do-nothing" technique is fundamental in natural agriculture. The soil "digs" itself naturally, thanks to the penetration of plant roots and the activity of microorganisms, small animals and soil worms.
The second principle is to eliminate the use of chemical fertilizers. Left alone, the soil maintains its fertility in a natural way without any help from man.
The third principle is to refrain from weeding. Weeds also play a role in creating soil fertility.
The fourth principle is no dependence on chemical pesticides for protection. Fukuoka grows cereals without the use of any chemicals. Some of the fruit trees are sometimes treated with an emulsion of machine oil to reduce insects. He also did not use long-acting pesticides of wide range.
For a scientist who is convinced that nature can be understood and used through human intellect and action, natural cultivation is a special method. The number of farmers who consciously follow this method in today's agriculture is very limited.
Sustainable agriculture is defined as the production of agricultural products through a system that increases the inherent capacity of natural and biological resources.
At the same time, it allows producers to enjoy good yields and provides consumers with safe and healthy products while minimizing adverse effects on the environment.
Sustainable agriculture aims to both maintain and improve food production, reduce the level of production risks, protect the potential of natural resources and prevent soil degradation and water quality, while being economically and socially acceptable.
These goals are a shared vision of both producers and consumers. Central to sustainable development is the principle of continuously meeting the human needs of present and future generations. Achieving this principle requires balance and harmony of human resources and continuous maintenance of agro-ecosystem elements.
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